# Percentage Calculator

Created by Mateusz Mucha and Dominik Czernia, PhD
Reviewed by Bogna Szyk and Jack Bowater
Last updated: Feb 07, 2024

This percentage calculator is a tool that lets you do a simple calculation: what percent of X is Y? The tool is pretty straightforward. All you need to do is fill in two fields, and the third one will be calculated for you automatically. This method will allow you to answer the question of how to find a percentage of two numbers.

Furthermore, our percentage calculator also allows you to perform calculations in the opposite way, i.e., how to find a percentage of a number. Try entering various values into the different fields and see how quick and easy-to-use this handy tool is. Is only knowing how to get a percentage of a number is not enough for you? If you are looking for more extensive calculations, hit the advanced mode button under the calculator.

Other than being helpful with learning percentages and fractions, this tool is useful in many different situations. You can find percentages in almost every aspect of your life! Anyone who has ever been to the shopping mall has surely seen dozens of signs with a large percentage symbol saying "discount!". And this is only one of many other examples of percentages. They frequently appear, e.g., in finance, where we use them to find an amount of income tax or sales tax, or in health to express what is your body fat.

Keep reading if you would like to see how to find a percentage of something, what the percentage formula is, and the applications of percentages in other areas of life, like statistics or physics.

## How to use this percentage calculator

Our percentage calculator has four sections. The following instructions should help you select the right section and put it to good use:

1. The section What is p% of x? will calculate the given percentage of a number:

1. Enter the percentage.
2. Enter the number of which you need to find the percentage.
3. The percent number appears at once.

For example, say you scored 80% on a test. If the test was for 30 marks, your score is 24 marks.

You can even calculate in reverse. This would allow you to, for instance, calculate your percentage based on your score. In a test for 30 marks, if you scored 27 marks, your percentage is 90%.

1. The section x is what percent of y? will determine the percentage of two given numbers:

1. Enter the number whose percentage you want to determine.

2. Provide the number against which this percentage must be evaluated.

3. The calculator gives you the percentage instantly.

For instance, say Gavin's rent is $1245 per month, while his monthly budget is$4000. When we enter 1245 in the first field and 4000 in the second, we can determine that his house rent takes up 31.125% of his monthly budget.

## How to calculate the percentage? What's the percentage formula?

Staying with our cookie examples, let's name the three parts in our equation: the percentage of cookies — 40%, the whole pack of cookies — 20, and the part of the pack of cookies — 8. Depending on what you want to estimate, you can write three various percentage formulas:

• the equation for percentage is this: percentage = 100 × part / whole, and it answers the question "what percentage of 20 is 8".
• the formula for a part is: part = whole × percentage / 100, and it answers "what is 40% of 20?".
• and finally, the formula for a whole is: whole = 100 × part / percentage, and it says "what is 100% if 8 is 40%?".

That's technically all. You should now know how to find the percentage of a number.

## History of percentage — the percent sign

Although Ancient Romans used Roman numerals I, V, X, L, and so on, calculations were often performed in fractions that were divided by 100. It was equivalent to the computing of percentages that we know today. Computations with a denominator of 100 became more standard after the introduction of the decimal system. Many medieval arithmetic texts applied this method to describe finances, e.g., interest rates. However, the percent sign % we know today only became popular a little while ago, in the 20th century, after years of constant evolution.

The term percent is often attributed to Latin per centum, which means by a hundred. Actually, it is wrong. We got the term from Italian per centofor a hundred. The percent sign % evolved by the gradual contraction of those words over centuries. Eventually, cento has taken the shape of two circles separated by a horizontal line, from which the modern % symbol is derived. The history of mathematical symbols is sometimes astonishing. We encourage you to take a look at the origin of the square root symbol!

Recently, the percent symbol is widely used in programming languages as an operator. Usually, it stands for the modulo operation. On the other hand, in experimental physics, the symbol % has a special meaning. It is used to express the relative error between the true value and the observed value found in a measurement. To know more about relative error, you can check our percent error calculator.

Have you ever met a percent symbol that had an additional circle? That's not a mistake! There are two related signs:

• ‰ — per mille — per thousand,
• ‱ — per myriad — per ten thousand (also known as a basis point),

Later in the text, we explain in more detail what per mille means, what is a basis point and how to convert per milles and basis points to percents.

Higher proportions use other notation (called parts-per notation), e.g., parts-per-million (PPM) which is frequently used to measure the concentration of a substance in solution or mixture. Of current concern is smog, the tiny particulate matter that enters the air and can seriously affect someone's health.

## Spelling — percent or per cent?

Percent or per cent? It depends on your diet. If you eat hamburgers for the majority of your meals, it is percent. If you prefer fish and chips, it is per cent. If you spray your fish-smelling chips with vinegar, then it is per cent, mate (as opposed to burger eaters' percent, dude). When it comes to percentage, both sides of the pond are in agreement: it should be a single word. Still confused? Americans say percent, British use per cent. Something tells us that American English is more popular nowadays, so this website uses a single-word form.

## What is per mille? What is a basis point?

Per mille, per mil, per mill, or simply is similar to percent, only it is one thousandth (1/1000 or 0.001). If our household's budget is \$2400 and we allocated 1 per mille of that to buying chewing gum, we would spend 2.4 dollars (2 dollars 40 cents) on annoying our teachers (well, 20 years ago it was not allowed in Polish schools. We do not know the rules nowadays 😃). It's pretty similar to how you find percentages. If you wanted to use percentage calculator to count per mille, simply use numbers 10× lower (0.2 instead of 2, 4 instead of 40).

Per myriad, basis point or just is one ten-thousandth(1/10000 or 0.0001). It's 10× smaller than per mille, so to convert basis points to percents, you need to divide them by 100. It's that simple!

## Percentage points (percent points)

Percentage points (or percent points) are a rather tricky beast. We use it all the time even if we don't know it — and in these situations, we often incorrectly say percent instead of a percentage point. Once you read this section, you will know how to do it properly and be annoyed for the rest of your life (because other people will keep making the mistake).

Senator Homer Simpson was polling at 10% last month. He had a few successful debates since then, and now 12% of the population wants to vote for him. What's the change? You want to say 2%, are we right? It's wrong! Let's examine this. Imagine the whole population is 1000 people. 10% of them is 100. 12% is 120. What's the percentage increase? It's 100 × 20 / 100 = 20%!

This situation is when percentage points come in handy. We use percentage points when we want to talk about a change from one percentage to another. A change from 10% to 12% is two percentage points (or 20 percent).

Understanding changes in percentages can be done in two different ways:

• Change in percentage points (pp): The difference between two percentage values. If one value is 10 % and the other is 30 %, the change is 20 percentage points (20 pp).
• Change in percentage: The relative change between two percentage values. If one value is 10 % and the other is 30 %, the change is 200 % of the original 10 %.

Now, when you know everything about percentage points, we guarantee that you will read or hear other people incorrectly saying percent when they should be using percentage points. If you're anything like us, you will scream at the newspaper, insulting it in some made-up language. This reaction helps to free up space around you when you're using public transportation :-)

💡 The percentage difference calculator takes care of a very similar concept, used when we don't know the direction of the calculation (from number A to B or B to A).

## Creating the percentage calculator

Mateusz and Dominik are experienced in creating scientific tools that solve everyday problems and explaining the concepts in a simple, easy-to-digest manner. The idea for this percentage calculator was born when Mateusz was shopping online and comparing prices and discount percentages on different websites. Now, they use it not just to make better shopping decisions but to pick better investments.

We put extra care into the quality of the content to ensure they are as accurate and reliable as possible. Each tool is peer-reviewed by a trained expert and then proofread by a native speaker. If you’d like to learn more about our standards, please check the .

## FAQ

### What is the percentage?

The percentage can be defined as the dimensionless ratio of two numbers. It can be used to compare two numbers and find out how much one is more than the other or compare the two numbers against a common scale.

### How do I calculate x percent of y?

To calculate x percent of y:

1. Divide x by 100.
2. Multiply the previous result by y.

The resultant number is x% of y.

### How much percent of y is x?

To find out x in terms of y:

1. Divide x by y.
2. Multiply the resultant number by 100.

The product of p% of y is equal to x.

### How much is 60% of 1260?

60% of 1260 is equal to 756. To calculate the 60% of 1260:

1. Divide 60 by 100: 60/100 = 0.6
2. Multiply the previous result by 1260: 0.6 × 1260 = 756.

So, the 60% of 1260 is 756.

Mateusz Mucha and Dominik Czernia, PhD
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If you'd like to answer different questions try other dedicated calculators:
Percentage difference calculator;
Percentage change calculator;
Percentage decrease calculator;
Percentage increase calculator;
Discount calculator; and
Percent off calculator.
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