(x - A)² + (y - B)² = C
A
B
C
x = A + r cos(α) , y = B + r sin(α)
A
B
r
x² + y² + Dx + Ey + F = 0
D
E
F
Center coordinates
x-coordinate
y-coordinate
Circle properties
Radius
Diameter
Area
Circumference

You might already be proficient in the geometry of a circle, but seeing the equation of the circle still makes your head spin. If this is the case, don't worry! This standard equation of a circle calculator will help you determine the radius and the center coordinates in a blink of an eye. If you are curious how to find the equation of a circle, scroll down, and you'll find the explanation of the formula.

If the geometric shape you're trying to analyze looks a bit squashed, it's probably an ellipse. In such a case, head straight to our ellipse calculator!

What is a standard equation of a circle?

The standard equation of a circle is a way to describe all points lying on a circle with just one formula:

(x - A)² + (y - B)² = r²

(x, y) are the coordinates of any point lying on the circle. It means that as long as you know all of the constants, you can input any x value to figure out the coordinates of an arbitrary point on the circle.

(A, B) are the coordinates of the center point. Be careful about the + and - signs here; for example, a circle with an equation of the form (x - 3)² + (y + 3)² = 5² will have a center point at (3, -3).

is the radius of the circle, raised to the power of two. To find the radius, simply take a square root of this value.

Our equation of the circle calculator finds not only these values, but also the diameter, circumference and area of the circle - all to save your time!

Parametric equation of a circle

Equation of a circle may be defined in different ways, not only in the standard form shown above. A circle can also be described as the locus of all points that satisfy the equations:

x = r * cos(α)

y = r * sin(α)

where

(x, y) are the coordinates of any point on the circle, as before;

r is the radius of the circle, and

α is the parameter - the angle subtended by the point at the circle's center.

If you shift the center of the circle to (A, B) coordinates, you'll simply add them to the x and y coordinates to get the general parametric equation of a circle:

x = A + r * cos(α)

y = B + r * sin(α)

Again, you should be careful about the signs of the center point.

Standard equation to parametric equation of the circle

To demonstrate that these two forms of the circle formula are equivalent, let's show the conversion between them:

  1. Starting from the parametric equation, we know that

x = r * cos(t) so cos(t) = x / r

y = r * sin(t) so sin(t) = y / r

  1. Let's take the well-known Pythagorean trigonometric identity:

sin²(t) + cos²(t) = 1

  1. Combine the identity with a parametric equation

(y / r)² + (x / r)² = 1

  1. Then remove the parentheses

y² / r² + x² / r² = 1

  1. And finally, multiply by r² and put the elements in the right order

x² + y² = 1

Here we are! That's the standard equation of a circle.

How to find the equation of a circle?

OK, you've learned about different circle equations. But where are they come from? Let's find out!

  1. Choose the center (A, B) of your circle. Don't put it in the origin of the coordinate system.
  2. Draw a circle with a chosen radius r.
  3. Pick any point on the circle. Assume the coordinates of that point P are (x,y).
  4. The angle POC is equal to α.

Great, we have all the data needed. Now we only need to use one geometry law or basic trigonometry to tie the given values together:

  • Use the distance formula:

    √[(x₂ - x₁)² + (y₂ - y₁)²] = r so

    √[(x - A)² + (y - B)²] = r and square the obtained formula to get the standard equation of a circle:

    (x - A)² + (y - B)² = r²

  • Use the Pythagorean theorem:

    r is a hypotenuse of a right triangle POC, so from Pythagorean theorem we can write:

    |OC|² + |CP|² = r²

    Also we know that:

    |OC| = |x - A|

    |CP| = |y - B|

    Coming back to the first equation we get:

    |x - A|² + |y - B|² = r² as a² = (−a)², the above equation works for every quadrant, not only the first one. Then the equation can be simplified to a standard formula

    (x - A)² + (y - B)² = r²

  • Use trigonometry:

    express the POC triangle sides using sine and cosine functions:

    cos(α) = OC / r so OC = r * cos(α)

    sin(α) = CP / r so CP = r * sin(α)

    Coordinates of point P may be expressed as:

    x = A + OC and y = B + CP, so

    x = A + r * cos(α)

    y = B + r * sin(α)

    Two last equations represent the parametric equations of the circle.

Now as you know how to find the equation of a circle, give this calculator a try!

Another form of the circle equation

Quite often, you will come across another form of the circle equation. It looks like this:

x² + y² + Dx + Ey + F = 0

This is the general form of a circle equation - the same as the standard form, but expanded. It is possible to get to the standard form from here with just a few simple operations - all you have to do is follow the steps below!

  1. Start with your general equation, for example

x² + y² + 4x - 6y + 8 = 0

  1. Put xs and ys together:

(x² + 4x) + (y² - 6y) + 8 = 0

  1. Move the constant to the right hand side of the equation:

(x² + 4x) + (y² - 6y) = -8

  1. Now, complete the square for x. In order to do it, you need to take half of the 4, square it, and add to both sides:

(x² + 4x + 4) + (y² - 6y) = -8 + 4

  1. Repeat the previous step, this time completing the square for y:

(x² + 4x + 4) + (y² - 6y + 9) = -8 + 4 + 9

  1. Simplify the x- and y-terms according to the factoring formulas:

(x + 2)² + (y - 3)² = 5

You're done - this is the standard form of a circle with a center at (-2, 3) and a radius equal to √5.

Naturally, you don't have to go through this whole process by yourself. Use this equation of a circle calculator instead!

How to use this equation of a circle calculator?

If you are still unsure how to use our tool, have a look at this simple example below.

  1. Assume you want to use standard equation of a circle. So it's the first part of the calculator.
  2. Type the given data. Let's say that your equation of a circle parameters are equal to A = 7, B = -2 and C = 9.
  3. Tadaa! The equation of a circle calculator did the job! The tool's showing you what are the parameters in another form of an equation, explaining what the A and B values are (the circle center coordinates), and additionally it calculates other values such as:
  • radius - which is equal to 3 for our circle,
  • diameter - 6 in our case,
  • area is 28.3 for our example, and
  • circumference of the circle is equal to 18.85.

In this calculator, we didn't put any units, as in many cases you don't need them, because you're working with the coordinates. If you need some units - like, e.g. inches, feet, or centimeters - just add them to the obtained results. Don't forget that the circle area will have squared units of length!

Bogna Haponiuk and Hanna Pamuła, PhD student

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