lie algebras Definition and Topics - 9 Discussions
In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space
g
{\displaystyle {\mathfrak {g}}}
together with an operation called the Lie bracket, an alternating bilinear map
g
×
g
→
g
,
(
x
,
y
)
↦
[
x
,
y
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{\displaystyle {\mathfrak {g}}\times {\mathfrak {g}}\rightarrow {\mathfrak {g}},\ (x,y)\mapsto [x,y]}
, that satisfies the Jacobi identity. The vector space
g
{\displaystyle {\mathfrak {g}}}
together with this operation is a non-associative algebra, meaning that the Lie bracket is not necessarily associative.
Lie algebras are closely related to Lie groups, which are groups that are also smooth manifolds: any Lie group gives rise to a Lie algebra, which is its tangent space at the identity. Conversely, to any finite-dimensional Lie algebra over real or complex numbers, there is a corresponding connected Lie group unique up to finite coverings (Lie's third theorem). This correspondence allows one to study the structure and classification of Lie groups in terms of Lie algebras.
In physics, Lie groups appear as symmetry groups of physical systems, and their Lie algebras (tangent vectors near the identity) may be thought of as infinitesimal symmetry motions. Thus Lie algebras and their representations are used extensively in physics, notably in quantum mechanics and particle physics.
An elementary example is the space of three dimensional vectors
g
=
R
3
{\displaystyle {\mathfrak {g}}=\mathbb {R} ^{3}}
with the bracket operation defined by the cross product
[
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,
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]
=
x
×
y
.
{\displaystyle [x,y]=x\times y.}
This is skew-symmetric since
x
×
y
=
−
y
×
x
{\displaystyle x\times y=-y\times x}
, and instead of associativity it satisfies the Jacobi identity:
x
×
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y
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)
=
(
x
×
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×
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+
y
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.
{\displaystyle x\times (y\times z)\ =\ (x\times y)\times z\ +\ y\times (x\times z).}
This is the Lie algebra of the Lie group of rotations of space, and each vector
v
∈
R
3
{\displaystyle v\in \mathbb {R} ^{3}}
may be pictured as an infinitesimal rotation around the axis v, with velocity equal to the magnitude of v. The Lie bracket is a measure of the non-commutativity between two rotations: since a rotation commutes with itself, we have the alternating property
Let's say I want to study subalgebras of the indefinite orthogonal algebra ##\mathfrak{o}(m,n)## (corresponding to the group ##O(m,n)##, with ##m## and ##n## being some positive integers), and am told that it can be decomposed into the direct sum $$\mathfrak{o}(m,n) = \mathfrak{o}(m-x,n-x)...
Summary: Lie algebras, Hölder continuity, gases, permutation groups, coding theory, fractals, harmonic numbers, stochastic, number theory.
1. Let ##\mathcal{D}_N:=\left\{x^n \dfrac{d}{dx},|\,\mathbb{Z}\ni n\geq N\right\}## be a set of linear operators on smooth real functions. For which...
Is it correct saying that the Exponential limit is an exact solution for passing from a Lie Algebra to a Lie group because a differential manifold with Lie group structure is such that for any point of the transformation the tangent space is by definition the Lie algebra: is that the underlying...
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Given a Lie Algebra ##\mathfrak{g}##, its Cartan Matrix ##A## and a finite representation ##R##, is there a way of determining its highest weight ##\Lambda## in a simple way?
In my course, we consider ##\mathfrak{g}=A_2= \mathfrak{L}_{\mathbb{C}}(SU(3))##. It is stated that the...
Suppose I have a hermitian ##N \times N## matrix ##M##. Let ##U \in SU(N)## be the matrix that diagonalizes ##M##: ##M = U\Lambda U^\dagger##, where ##\Lambda## is the matrix of eigenvalues of ##M##. This transformation can be considered as the adjoint action ##Ad## of ##SU(N)## over its...
Let U ∈ SU(N) and {ta} be the set of generators of su(N), a = 1, ..., N2 - 1. The action of the adjoint representation of U on some generator ta can be written as
Ad(U)ta = Λ(U)abtb
I want to characterize the matrix Λ(U), i. e., I want to see which of its elements are independent. It's known...
So, we know that if g is a Lie algebra, we can take the cartan subalgebra h ⊂ g and diagonalize the adjoint representation of h, ad(h). This generates the Cartan-Weyl basis for g. Now, let G be the Lie group with Lie algebra g. Is there a way to diagonalize the adjoint representation Ad(T) of...
Homework Statement
Show that the members of the Lie algebra of SO(n) are anti-symmetric nxn matrices. To start, assume that the nxn orthogonal matrix R which is an element of SO(n) depends on a single parameter t. Then differentiate the expression:
R.RT= I
with respect to the parameter t...
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As far as I understand, the Cartan matrix is associated with a unique semi simple algebra. How can we compute the norm of a root α from it since its components are invariant under rescaling (if all the simple roots are multiplied by the same constant, the Cartan matrix remains unchanged)...