Voltage drop calculator is a simple tool that helps you determine what part of voltage is lost when the electric current moves through a wire, as well as calculate the voltage output at the end of the cable. Alternatively, you can use it as a wire size calculator to decide which wire diameter will ensure that your voltage drop doesn't exceed acceptable levels.
If you still wonder how to calculate the voltage drop, look no further - simply keep reading to find out! This article will provide you with a voltage drop formula and a clear example of its application. Make sure to check out the Ohm's law calculator, too!
By definition, the voltage drop is the reduction in the voltage, occurring when the electric current moves through passive elements of the circuit.
Let's consider a wire that connects a house to the local electricity supplier. At ideal conditions, electrical current flows unobstructed along the wire until it reaches the house. There, it is used to power up multiple devices. In reality, though, the current is obstructed by some kind of opposing pressure. It means that some part of the voltage is lost when the current has to overcome this resistance. This loss is called voltage drop.
If you have troubles with understanding it, you can imagine a person running along a straight path. If the path is clear, without any obstacles, and with appropriate pavement, the person will move fast and steady. On the other hand, if the road is difficult to run along, and there are stones blocking the way, it is more likely that the person will lose a lot of her energy just trying to overcome all obstacles.
In general, the voltage drop occurs when the current has to travel along a wire. In such a system, both components - the current and the wire - influence the voltage drop. In particular, it is possible to distinguish the following factors:
The formula for voltage drop depends on the type of the current.
V = 2 * I * L * R / A / n
V = √3 * I * L * R / A / n
0.451 V / 220 V = 0.205%.
220 V - 0.451 V = 219.55 V.
As a rule, the voltage drop should never exceed 3% of the initial voltage. A higher drop may result in flickering of lights, as well as to overheating of devices (they will need to work harder than normal to produce the same effect).
If you are interested in electricity, make sure to take a look at our series resistor calculator as well!