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Triangle

Base width

mm

Height

mm

Ix

mm4

Iy

mm4

Rectangle

Width

mm

Height

mm

Ix

mm4

Iy

mm4

Semicircle

Radius

nm

Ix

mm4

Iy

mm4

Circle

Radius

mm

Ix

mm4

Iy

mm4

Ellipse

Radius along x-axis

mm

Radius along y-axis

mm

Ix

mm4

Iy

mm4

Regular hexagon

Side length

mm

Ix

mm4

Iy

mm4

If you have trouble with determining the second moment of area of any common shape (like a circle or a hexagon), this moment of inertia calculator is here to help you. You will also find the moment of inertia formulas here - read the description below to make sure you are using them correctly! We will explain how these formulas work, so that you won't have to wonder how to calculate the moment of inertia of a rectangle ever again.

What exactly is the area moment of inertia (also called the second moment of area)? It is a geometrical property of any area. It describes how the area is distributed about an arbitrary axis. The units of the area moment of inertia are meters to the fourth power (m^4).

We can distinguish between the moment of inertia about the horizontal x-axis (denoted Ix) and the moment of inertia about the vertical y-axis (denoted Iy). We usually assume that the "width" of any shape is the length of the side along x-axis, and the height - along y-axis.

Generally, finding the second moment of area of an arbitrary shape requires integration. You can use the following equations for the most common shapes, though. Remember that these formulas are true only if **the origin of the coordinate system coincides with the centroid** of the area. In other words, if both the x-axis and the y-axis cross the centroid of the analyzed shape, then these equations hold.

- Triangle:

`Ix = width * height^3 / 36`

`Iy = height * width^3 / 36`

- Rectangle:

`Ix = width * height^3 / 12`

`Iy = height * width^3 / 12`

- Circle

`Ix = Iy = π/4 * radius^4`

- Semicircle

`Ix = [π/8 - 8/(9*π)] * radius^4`

`Iy = = π/8 * radius^4`

- Ellipse

`Ix = π/4 * radius_x * radius_y^3`

`Iy = π/4 * radius_y * radius_x^3`

- Regular hexagon

`Ix = Iy = 5*√(3)/16 * side_length^4`

What if the origin of the coordinate system does not coincide with the centroid? Have no worries - it is still possible to find the second moment of area! You need to use the parallel axes theorem. Let's say you want to find the moment of area about an axis parallel to x-axis that lies in distance `a`

from it. You need to use the following formula:

`I = Ix + A * a^2`

where:

`I`

is the moment of inertia about the axis parallel to x-axis,`Ix`

is the moment of inertia about the x-axis,`A`

is the area, and`a`

is the distance between two parallel axes.

To find the area of a circle (and its other properties as well), use the circumference calculator.

Let's assume a rectangle with width 12 cm and height 8 cm. Its centroid lies in the origin of the coordinate system. Then:

`Ix = 12 * 8^3 / 12 = 512 cm^4`

`Iy = 8 * 12^3 / 12 = 1152 cm^4`