This PSA density calculator is an easy tool which enables you to evaluate your PSA density - an important indicator of prostate cancer in patients with a mildly elevated PSA. To determine the density of PSA, you are going to need your PSA result and the volume of your prostate or its dimensions.
Prostate cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
The prostate is an exocrine gland in the male reproductive system. Its function is to produce and secrete an alkaline fluid which is an essential part of semen. The prostate may be the source of several health-related problems, out of which the most important ones are Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Prostate Cancer.
In benign prostatic hyperplasia, the prostate often enlarges (in a benign way) to the point where urination becomes difficult. Symptoms include needing to often urinate (frequency) or taking a while to get started (hesitancy). Treatment involves lifestyle changes, medications, minimally invasive procedures or even surgeries removing the prostate.
Prostate cancer is a life-threatening disease, one of the most common cancers in men worldwide and a significant cause of preterm death. It usually develops without symptoms, or with symptoms that may be similar to BPH (frequency, hesitancy). The diagnosis is made based on the results of a prostate biopsy. The treatment is based on the surgical approach (radical prostatectomy) or radiotherapy. Additionally, hormone therapy and chemotherapy are used.
It's also worth mentioning that those two diseases - Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - may coexist in one patient.
What is PSA?
PSA or Prostate-Specific-Antigen is an enzyme present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates. Its concentration is usually elevated in the cases of prostate cancer, but it may also mean prostatitis or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.
The discovery of PSA and its introduction into clinical practices revolutionized the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. Elevated PSA is an indicator that doctor should perform a prostate biopsy, however, among patients with a so-called "mildly elevated PSA", it is very probable that the elevation is caused by BPH, not prostate cancer.
PSA Density is a parameter which may help to differentiate between prostate cancer and BPH in patients with mildly elevated PSA. Read on to get to know how to calculate PSA density!
PSA density calculator
The PSA density calculator enables you to estimate your PSA Density. To do this, all you need to know is:
- Your PSA result
- The volume of your prostate, from either:
- mpMRI (multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging), or
- TRUS (transrectal ultrasound).
The PSA Density is calculated using the formula below:
PSA Density = PSA / Volume
Prostate size calculator
If you don't know the volume of your prostate, you can use our calculator as a prostate size calculator, or as a prostate volume calculator. To estimate the volume of your prostate simply fill in its length, width and height. The formula to estimate prostate volume is as follows:
Prostate volume = Length x Width x Height x π/6
How to calculate PSA Density and its meaning
So, if you want to calculate PSA Density, simply fill in the data you have:
- prostate size or length, width, and height
- PSA result
And you've got your result! But what exactly does it tell you? Generally, a PSA Density result of 0.15 or higher means that there is a suspicion of prostate cancer. In such a situation, it is essential that you go to a urologist, who will decide whether or not a prostate biopsy needs to be performed. On the other hand, you need to remember that a result of less than 0.15 does not exclude prostate cancer!