The prostate is an exocrine gland in the male reproductive system. Its function is to produce and secrete an alkaline fluid, an essential part of semen. The prostate may be the source of several health-related problems, out of which the most important ones are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer.
In benign prostatic hyperplasia, the prostate often enlarges (in a benign way) to the point where urination becomes difficult. Symptoms include needing to urinate often (frequency) or taking a while to get started (hesitancy). Treatment involves lifestyle changes, medications, minimally invasive procedures, or even surgeries removing the prostate.
Prostate cancer is a life-threatening disease, one of the most common cancers in men worldwide, and a significant cause of preterm death. It usually develops without symptoms or with symptoms similar to BPH (frequency, hesitancy). The diagnosis is made based on the results of a prostate biopsy. The treatment is based on the surgical approach (radical prostatectomy) or radiotherapy. Additionally, hormone therapy and chemotherapy are used.
It's also worth mentioning that those two diseases – prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia – may coexist in one patient.
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PSA or prostate-specific-antigen is an enzyme present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates. Its concentration is usually elevated in cases of prostate cancer, but it may also mean prostatitis or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH for short).
The discovery of PSA and its introduction into clinical practices revolutionized the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. Elevated PSA is an indicator that a doctor should perform a prostate biopsy. However, among patients with a so-called "mildly elevated PSA", it is very probable that BPH, not prostate cancer, caused the elevation.
PSA density is a parameter that may help to differentiate between prostate cancer and BPH in patients with mildly elevated PSA. Read on to get to know how to calculate PSA density!
The PSA density calculator enables you to estimate your PSA density. To do this, all you need to know is the following:
The PSA Density is calculated using the formula below:
If you don't know the volume of your prostate, you can use our calculator as a prostate size calculator or a prostate volume calculator. To estimate the volume of your prostate simply fill in its length, width, and height.
The formula to estimate prostate volume is as follows:
So, if you want to calculate PSA density, simply fill in the data you have:
And you've got your result! But what exactly does it tell you? Generally, a PSA density result of 0.15 or higher means that there is a suspicion of prostate cancer. In such a situation, it is essential you go to a urologist, who will decide whether or not a prostate biopsy needs to be performed. On the other hand, you need to remember that a result of less than 0.15 does not exclude prostate cancer!
To calculate PSA density, you can follow these steps:
Typically, lower PSA density outcomes are linked to reduced risks of prostate problems, such as cancer. Therefore, 0.03 ng/mL2 could be a favorable result. Regardless, it's essential to recognize that PSA density can fluctuate due to age, general well-being, and individual circumstances. Hence, it is necessary to consult with a medical professional.
To calculate the volume of the prostate, follow these steps:
While a reading of 0.15 ng/mL2 or higher may raise concerns about prostate cancer, any result below this value doesn't guarantee that cancer is not present. It is crucial to consult with a medical professional and undergo further evaluation.
Assuming that your PSA value is 0.7 ng/mL,, then your PSA density is 0.03, which is generally considered a favorable result and is not typically associated with a high risk of prostate cancer.
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