- Electronegativity calculator
- Electronegativity definition. What is electronegativity?
- What is electropositivity?
- Electronegativity formula
- Electronegativity chart. How to find electronegativity?
- Electronegativity trend
- Why does electronegativity increase across a period?
- Why does electronegativity decrease down the group?
- Which element has the highest electronegativity?
- Which element is the least electronegative?
- Electron affinity vs. electronegativity
Our electronegativity calculator is here to help you with your chemistry questions related to bonds between atoms. It allows you to calculate the type of bond based on the electronegativity values of elements.
If you are curious about the electronegativity trends, what the electronegativity chart looks like, what electropositivity is, and how do you use the electronegativity periodic table to calculate ionic or covalent bonds, then continue reading to get all the answers and more!
⚗️ And if there is a curious chemist inside of you, check out our calculators:
Electronegativity is a measure that varies between atoms and influences their chemical properties and the type of bond the atoms will form.
The electronegativity calculator allows you to calculate the type of bond formed between different elements using their electronegativity values. You can also use our tool as an electronegativity difference calculator to determine the difference between the electronegativity values of elements. Follow the given steps to find out the type of bond between elements based on the electronegativity:
Select the electronegativity value of the first element.
Select the electronegativity value of the second element.
The calculator calculates the difference between these two electronegativities and then displays the type of bond that these two elements form. We call this feature the ionic or covalent calculator.
💡 You should keep in mind that this does not tell you if the selected elements actually do form a bond. Instead, it tells you, if they were to form a bond, what kind of bond they would have.
For instance, sodium (Na) metal and chlorine (Cl) non-metal combine to form sodium chloride (NaCl), commonly known as table salt. This NaCl molecule is bonded by an ionic bond whereas hydrogen (H) and hydrogen (H) bond covalently to form a dihydrogen (H2) molecule. If you want to learn more about the naming conventions for compounds, make sure to check our chemical name calculator.
Electronegativity definition. What is electronegativity?
The definition of electronegativity is:
The tendency of an atom to attract electrons to form a chemical bond.
The electronegativity of an atom depends upon its atomic number and its atomic radius, which means that the more the distance between the nucleus and its valence electrons, the lower the electronegativity and vice versa. Electronegativity in the period table increases as you move from left to right across a period and decreases as you move from top to bottom in a group.
Electronegativity not only helps us in studying the chemical properties of an atom but also plays a significant role in studying the electron affinity, type of bond formed between atoms, the magnitude of the bond's polarity, and the bond order between bonding atoms.
On the periodic table, the electronegativity values of most of the elements have been calculated using the Pauling scale.
What is electropositivity?
Electropositivity is considered the opposite of electronegativity because it is the characteristic of an atom to donate its valence electrons. It means that the electronegativity of an atom is so low that it does not attract atoms and instead donates electrons. Such an atom is considered to be electropositive.
The formula of the electronegativity difference (END) is:
END = |χ of first element - χ of second element|
END - Eectronegativity difference;
χ - Electronegativity; and
|x| - Absolute value of
We use the absolute value because we need the
END value to always be positive to identify the type of chemical bond. Our electronegativity difference calculator uses the above formula.
Electronegativity chart. How to find electronegativity?
If you want to calculate the electronegativity difference or the type of bond between two elements, you need to have an electronegativity chart for the electronegativity values of all elements on the periodic table.
Follow the given steps to calculate the electronegativity or chemical bond type:
Note the electronegativity of the first and second elements. How to find electronegativity? Just use a periodic table which includes it and read it for the selected element.
Subtract the two electronegativity values and you will have the electronegativity difference of the two elements or atoms.
Three different conditions determine the type of chemical bond that the selected elements may form.
- If the electronegativity difference is less than 2.00, the bond is ionic;
- If the electronegativity difference is between 0.4 and 2.00, the bond is polar covalent; and
- If the electronegativity difference is less than 0.4, the bond is covalent.
Now, compare the electronegativity difference you obtained with these three conditions to identify the bond.
For example, the electronegativity value of hydrogen is 2.20, and fluorine is 3.98. Their electronegativity difference is 1.78. The value lies between 0.4 and 2.00, implying that the bond type is polar covalent.
The electronegativity trend in the periodic table is what helps us identify and understand the difference in electronegativities of various elements.
For instance, what happens to the electronegativity of an atom as we move down the group or across the period? Which element is the most or least electronegative?
Why does electronegativity increase across a period?
As you move down the group in the periodic table, the number of shells of an atom increases, increasing the distance between the nucleus and outermost shell. When the distance is increased and the shielding is also increased, it causes a decrease in nuclear attraction.
So when the nucleus does not have that strong of a hold, the electrons tend to drift away, in turn decreasing their capability to attract electrons towards themselves, hence decreasing the electronegativity.
Why does electronegativity decrease down the group?
As you move down the group in the periodic table, the number of electron shells of an atom increase, furthering the distance between the nucleus and outermost shell. When the distance is increased and the shielding is also increased, it causes a decrease in nuclear attraction.
So, when the nucleus does not have that strong of a hold, the electrons tend to drift away, in turn decreasing their capability to attract electrons towards themselves, hence decreasing electronegativity.
Which element has the highest electronegativity?
Fluorine is the most electronegative element on the periodic table. Its electronegativity value is 3.98.
It is found in the 7th group and 2nd period of the periodic table and is considered a highly toxic non-metal gas.
It is one of the lightest of the halogens.
Which element is the least electronegative?
Cesium (Cs) is the least electronegative element on the periodic table. Its electronegativity value is 0.73.
Its atomic number is 55 u. It belongs to the 1st period and 6th group, alkali metal of the periodic table.
Cesium is one of the only five metal elements that are in the liquid state at room temperature.
Electron affinity vs. electronegativity
Electronegativity and electron affinity are two different chemical properties of elements.
Electronegativity refers to the ability of an atom to attract electrons to form a chemical bond.
Whereas electron affinity is the amount of energy released once that chemical bond is formed between the atoms.
Generally, electron affinity is studied alongside electronegativity because whenever two atoms form a bond with each other, some amount of energy is released.
- If the electronegativity difference between these two atoms is large, then a larger amount of energy will be released to form the bond between them, hence electron affinity will be greater; and
- If the electronegativity difference is smaller in value, less energy will be released to form a bond between those two atoms, and hence electron affinity will be less.
What is the electronegativity of chlorine?
3.16 is the electronegativity value of chlorine (Cl).
It belongs to the 7th group and 2nd period on the periodic table, known as the halogens.
It is among the highly reactive non-metal gases that have low melting and boiling points.
What type of bond do sodium and chlorine form?
Sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) form an ionic bond.
Their bond produces NaCl, sodium chloride, commonly known as table salt.
Sodium metal has a positive charge, and chlorine gas has a negative charge on it, which causes these ions to form an ionic bond.
What is the electronegativity of hydrogen?
2.20 is the electronegativity of hydrogen (H). It is the first and lightest element on the periodic table.
Its atomic number is 1 u and it is generally found as a gas molecule with the formula H2.
Hydrogen is colorless, odorless, and non-toxic.
an ionic bond ⚛️