# Normality Calculator

Created by Rahul Dhari
Reviewed by Purnima Singh, PhD and Steven Wooding
Last updated: Sep 11, 2023

The normality calculator will help you determine the number of equivalents of solute present in one liter of solution.

Normality in chemistry, otherwise known as equivalent concentration, is a function of molar concentration (see molarity calculator) and equivalence factor. It is helpful in medical science and chemistry to report the concentration of a solution.

This calculator and the accompanying article explain what normality is and the equation to calculate it. The article also discusses molarity vs. normality.

## Normality definition and units

Normality (N), otherwise known as the normal concentration, is a measure of concentration of solute in gram equivalents per volume of the solution. For a solution with 'x' grams of solute, the normality equation is:

$\scriptsize N = \frac{\text{Mass of solute}} {\text{equivalent wt.} \times \text{volume of soln.} }$

where the mass of the solute is in grams.

The units of normality are "eq/L" or "meq/L". A measurement of 1 eq/L is also 1 N. You can calculate the equivalent weight of a solute using its molecular weight and valency of the solute:

$\scriptsize \text{Eq. wt} = \frac{\text{Molecular wt. of solute}} {\text{Valency}}$

Our molecular weight calculator will be handy for calculating the equivalent weight.

## Normality vs. molarity

Molarity (M) and Normality (N) are closely related terms and are often confusing. Both quantities deal with concentration. However, molarity is the moles of substance per volume of solution, whereas normality is the equivalent weight of substance per liter of solution. You can relate normality and molarity using the equation:

$\scriptsize N \times \text{Eq.wt.} = M × \text{Molecular mass}$

The normal concentration is always greater than its molar counterpart. Both concepts are useful for reporting concentrations during titrations and medical serums.

## Using the normality calculator

Now that you know what normality is! Let's calculate normality for 1 g of sodium bicarbonate dissolved in 3 liters of water.

To calculate normality:

1. Enter the mass of solute in grams as 1 g.

2. Fill in the equivalent weight of Na₂CO₃ as 52.95 eq/g. You can calculate this by adding the molecular mass of sodium bicarbonate and dividing it by 2 because we need 2 sodium ions for every carbonate ion.

3. The normality of the solution is:

$\qquad \scriptsize N = \frac{1}{52.95 \times 3} = 0.006295~\mathrm{eq/L}$

Alternatively, you can also use this calculator to calculate the amount of solute needed to obtain the concentration of 1 N.

## FAQ

### What do you mean by normality?

The normality is the ratio of the solute's equivalent weight and solution volume. The units of normality are eq/L or meq/L. Here, eq/L refers to 1 N whereas meq/L is 0.001 N.

### How do I calculate normality?

To calculate normality:

1. Find the mass and equivalent weight of the solute.
2. Divide the mass of solute by equivalent weight of solute.
3. Divide the resultant by the volume of solution to obtain the normality or normal concentration.

### What is the normality for 2 g of N₂ in 500 ml solution?

The normality is 0.1428 eq/L. For a solute of mass 2 g and equivalent weight 28.014 eq/g, the normality equals to N = 2/(28.014 × 0.5) = 0.1428 eq/L or 0.1428 N.

### What is the difference between molarity and normality?

The normality deals with the equivalent weight of the solute, whereas the molarity deals with the molar mass of the solute. The normal concentration or normality is always greater than the molarity. The two entities are related by:

Normality × Equivalent weight = Molarity × Molar mass

Rahul Dhari
Mass of solute (m)
g
Equivalent weight of solute (E)
eq/
g
Volume of solution (S)
US gal
Normality (N)
eq/
US gal
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